In Indonesia, layer chickens are livestock commodities with a high population. According to BPS (Central Statistics Agency) data, the layer population
increased by around 17 million birds in 2020. This means if in 2019 the population was 263,918,004 birds, in 2020 it jumped to 281,108,407 birds.
To be able to raise layers properly, a farmer must understand very well about raising management and disease management which is actually the main success factor in this business. At this point, the farmer must be familiar with disease cases in the ield in order to provide initial assistance to the layers.
Entering 2020, cases of layer disease were still occurring. In fact, they had supposedly been mutated. According to Ahmad Sofyan, a breeder from Kendal, Central Java, that recently the disease had been seen to be extraordinary. “Actually, this layer disease is classic. In the last half-year or so, the ones who had come were coryza, ND (Newcastle Disease), AI (Avian Inluenza), and IB (Infectious Bronchitis).
The existence of the cases coincided with the current high intensity of rain,” he told TROBOS Livestock. However, what becomes homework for all poultry players is the mutation of the disease that occurs. According to Sofyan, he had experienced H9N2, which is an AI virus. Previously, the only AI virus found was H9N1. “H9N2 has brought down egg production by up to 40%,” said the owner of Balebat Farm, which is headquartered in Sukorejo, Kendal, Central Java. The recovery period was quite long. In short, exposed chickens were not able to achieve the same production targets as other healthy chickens.
Surprisingly, ND cases could emerge after the chickens have been given the vaccine. “There are many factors that I actually observe regarding this. It could be because the chickens are not it when vaccinated, or the conditions in the cage are not good. Therefore, I have to evaluate the titers of the ND vaccine that
I do once every 12 weeks,” he explained.
He stressed the importance of antibody titers. Conducting antibody titer tests is the main thing to develop vaccination programs. Similarly, it is also crucial to determine vaccination schedules, make immune mapping of certain chickens, and diagnose diseases. All these are Sofyan’s strategies to prevent the disease from entering his farm area, or, at least to suppress the incidence of existing diseases.
Junaedi, a layer practitioner who graduated from the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Gadjah Mada University (FKH UGM), who travels daily to accompany farmers in Blitar, East Java, admits that it is the layer phase disease that gets the most attention. “The cases that usually alict layers are ND, AI, NE (Necrotic Enteritis), colibacillosis, mycotoxicosis, leucocytozoonosis, and small parasites,” he wrote at an online seminar conducted with FKH UGM.
He has seen a number of cases of the disease in the past 6 months. Not only in the layer phase, chickens in the starter - grower - developer phase also have become easy targets for such disease as gumboro, ND, NE, CRD (Chronic Respiratory Disease/snoring), and coryza infection. The factors triggering the emergence of diseases that can be analyzed are the housing system with so many units, in addition to the rainy season factor, less optimal management of the cage, and management of feed raw materials.l