Shocking news came from East Java in early May. It was the discovery of an outbreak of FMD (mouth and nail disease) that infected 1,247 cattle. The cows exposed to this viral disease were found in Gresik, Lamongan, Sidoarjo, and Mojokerto Regencies. Through a letter from the Head of the Veterinary Center for Farma Number 05001/PK.310/F4.H/05/2022 dated May 5, 2022, regarding the Answer to the FMD Suspect Sample Test, the cows in the area were confirmed to be positive for FMD.
It is ironic because this is the third time Indonesia has contracted FMD, in 1887 in Malang, East Java, and almost a century later, in 1983 in Blora Regency, Central Java. At that time, the eradication of FMD was carried out intensively and massively by conducting continuous vaccination for three consecutive years.
The re-emergence of this FMD is very unfortunate for all people because Indonesia has a status as an FMD-free country as stated in the OIE Resolution (Office des Internationale Epizootis) or the World Animal Health Agency Number XI in 1990. This has become a nightmare for the domestic livestock industry because FMD can cause economic losses that are not small for farmers and the state.
The Foot and Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV) attack, which belongs to the Picornaviridae family and the Aphtovirus genus, was officially announced by the Governor of East Java, Khofifah Indar Parawansa on Saturday (7/5) through her personal Instagram account. "Dear citizens of East Java, we have received a new test, disease of the mouth and nails of animals. The results of the Pusvetma laboratory (Center for Veterinary Farma) as of May 5 have found cases in Mojokerto, Sidoarjo, Lamongan, and Gresik. Yesterday, Friday (6/5) we held a marathon coordination meeting with Pusvetma, Regents of 4 regions, Director General of PKH (Director General of Livestock and Animal Health), directors, Dean of FKH Unair (Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Universitas Airlangga) and other experts," she wrote.
Khofifah admitted that various steps had been taken. Various veterinary medicines have also been sent from the Ministry of Agriculture (Kementan). The handling process is in progress. The command post is opened on the left of Grahadi's building for more effective vertical-horizontal coordination. She did not forget to ask people for prayers so that everything went smoothly.
Along with the East Java Governor's official statement, a letter was circulated from the East Java Provincial Government through the Livestock Service Number 524.3/5201/122.3/2022 regarding Reports of Acute Infectious Diseases in FMD Livestock in East Java for the Governor of East Java. The letter stated that FMD is an acute infectious animal disease that attacks cattle, buffalo, goats, sheep, horses, and pigs with a transmission rate of 90-100%, and very high economic losses. The clinical signs of FMD are high fever up to 39-41 0C, excessive mucus coming out of the mouth and foaming, sores such as canker sores in the mouth and tongue, refusing to eat, limping, sores on the feet and ending with loose nails, difficulty standing, shaking, rapid breathing, decreased milk production, and becoming thinner.
Still based on a letter from the East Java Provincial Government through the Livestock Service Number 524.3/5201/122.3/2022, it is clearly explained that the chronology of the FMD outbreak in East Java is a) the first case reported in Gresik Regency on April 28, 2022, as many as 402 beef cattle that spread over 5 sub-districts and 22 villages; b) the second case was reported on May 1, 2022, in Lamongan Regency as many as 102 beef cattle spread over 3 sub-districts and 6 villages, then in Sidoarjo Regency as many as 595 beef cattle, dairy cattle, and buffalo spread over 11 sub-districts and 14 villages; c) the third case was reported on May 3, 2022, in Mojokerto Regency with a total of 148 beef cattle spread over 9 sub-districts and 19 villages; d) outbreaks that have attacked 1,247 individuals in the 4 districts have clinical signs in accordance with FMD.